The first month is the gateway to the new Year, and takes its name from Janus, a two headed Roman god who guarded doors and gates. One of his heads was said to look toward the past, the other to the future.
When the Romans first borrowed thier calendar from the Greeks, they had a year only 304 days long, which was divided into ten months, beginning with March.
Legend says that January and February were added by the king of Rome named Pompilius in about the year 700 B.C. He made January the eleventh month and February the twelfth.
This calendar, though more accourate than the old one, was still not good enough. By the time of Julius Caesar, the dates were three months ahead of the season. So in 46 B.C. , Caesar order that the calendar be brought up to date, and in doing so made January the first month and February the second. Caesar’s calendar, called the Julian Calendar ( the word Julian comes from his first name Julius), was used for 1,500 years.